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徽派民居建筑特点有哪些

来源:/news/445.html 发布日期:2022-03-15

徽派民居建筑特点是什么徽派民居大致还有以下几个特点
What are the architectural characteristics of Hui style dwellings? Hui style dwellings generally have the following characteristics
1、敬重自然山水大环境。古徽州对村落选址的地形﹑地貌﹑水流风向等因素都有周到的考虑,往往都是依山傍水,环境优美,布局合理,交通顺畅,建筑融汇于山水之间。
1. Respect the natural landscape environment. Ancient Huizhou has considerate consideration of the terrain, landform, water flow and wind direction of the village site selection. It is often close to mountains and rivers, with beautiful environment, reasonable layout, smooth traffic and buildings integrated between mountains and rivers.
2、富于美感的外观整体性。群房一体,别具一格的马头墙,采用高墙封闭,马头翘角,墙面和马头高低进退错落有致,青山﹑绿水、白墙﹑黛瓦是徽派建筑的主要特征之一,在质朴中透着清秀。

2. Aesthetic appearance integrity. The unique horse head wall, which integrates the group of houses, is closed by high walls, with horse heads tilted. The walls and horse heads advance and retreat in a staggered manner. Green mountains, green water, white walls and black tiles are one of the main features of Hui style buildings, showing beauty in simplicity.

3、较灵活的多进院落式布局。建筑平面布局的单元是以天井为心围合的院落,高宅、深井、大厅,按功能﹑规模﹑地形灵活布置,富有韵律感。
3. More flexible multi entry courtyard layout. The unit of the building plane layout is a courtyard surrounded by a patio. High houses, deep wells and halls are flexibly arranged according to function, scale and terrain, with a sense of rhythm.
4、精美的细部装饰。徽学问中“三雕”(砖雕﹑石雕﹑木雕)艺术令人叹为观止,砖雕门罩﹑石雕漏窗﹑木雕楹柱与建筑物融为
4. Exquisite detail decoration. The art of "three carvings" (brick carvings, stone carvings and wood carvings) in Huizhou culture is amazing. Brick door covers, stone carvings, window leaks and wood carvings are integrated with buildings
徽派古建筑以砖、木、石为原料,以木构架为主。梁架多用料硕大,且注重装饰,其横梁中部略微拱起,故民间俗称为“冬瓜梁”。
The ancient architecture of Hui style takes brick, wood and stone as raw materials and mainly uses wood frame. The beam frame is multi-purpose, with huge materials and emphasis on decoration. The middle of the beam is slightly arched, so it is commonly known as "white gourd beam" among the people.
两端雕出扁圆形(明代)或圆形(清代)花纹,中段常雕有多种图案,通体显得恢宏、华丽、壮美.立柱用料也颇粗大,上部稍细.明代立柱通常为梭形。梁托、爪柱、叉手、霸拳、雀替(明代为丁头拱)、斜撑等大多雕刻花纹、线脚,梁架构件的巧妙组合和装修使工艺技术与艺术手法相交融。达到了珠联璧合的妙境,梁架一般不施彩漆而髹以桐油,显得格外古朴典雅。墙角、天井、栏杆、照壁、漏窗等用青石、红砂石或花岗岩裁割成石条、石板筑就,且往往利用石料本身的自然纹理组合成图纹,墙体基本使用小青砖砌至马头墙。
Flat round (Ming Dynasty) or round (Qing Dynasty) patterns are carved at both ends, and a variety of patterns are often carved in the middle, which makes the whole body look magnificent, gorgeous and magnificent The material used for the column is also quite thick, and the upper part is slightly thin The columns in the Ming Dynasty were usually shuttle shaped. Most of the beam brackets, claw columns, fork hands, baquan, queti (Ding tou arch in the Ming Dynasty), diagonal braces, etc. are carved with patterns and moldings. The ingenious combination and decoration of beam frame components make the integration of process technology and artistic techniques. It has reached the wonderful state of perfect combination. The beam frame is generally painted with tung oil instead of color paint, which is particularly simple and elegant. Wall corners, patios, railings, screen walls, leaky windows, etc. are cut into stone strips and slabs with bluestone, red sandstone or granite, and often combined into patterns by using the natural texture of the stone itself. The wall is basically built with small green bricks to the horse head wall.

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