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从徽派古建到民居小院的脱变

来源:/news/432.html 发布日期:2022-01-20

徽派建筑又称徽州建筑,是中国传统建筑重要的流派“皖派建筑”之一分支系列,徽派建筑作为徽学问的重要组成部分,历来为中外建筑大师所推崇。
Huizhou architecture, also known as Huizhou architecture, is a branch series of "Anhui architecture", an important school of Chinese traditional architecture. As an important part of Huizhou culture, Huizhou architecture has always been respected by Chinese and foreign architects.
徽派建筑以砖、木、石为原料,以木构架为主。梁架多用料硕大,且注重装饰。还广泛采用砖、木、石雕,表现出高超的装饰艺术水平。徽派建筑坐北朝南,注重内采光;以堂屋为心,以雕梁画栋和装饰屋顶、檐口见长。
Huipai architecture takes brick, wood and stone as raw materials and mainly uses wood frame. The beam frame is multi-purpose, with huge materials and pays attention to decoration. Brick, wood and stone carvings are also widely used, showing a superb level of decorative art. Hui style architecture faces south and pays attention to internal lighting; With the main house as the center, he is good at carving beams and painting buildings and decorating roofs and cornices.


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徽派建筑讲究规格礼数,官商亦有别。除脱富丽堂皇的徽商巨贾之家外,小户人家的民居亦不乏雅致与讲究。徽派建筑集徽州山川风景之灵气,融中国风俗学问之精华,风格独特,结构严谨,雕镂精湛,不论是村镇规划构思,还是平面及空间处理、建筑雕刻艺术的综合运用都充分体现了鲜明的地方特色。
Hui Style Architecture pays attention to specifications and etiquette, and officials and businessmen are also different. In addition to the magnificent homes of Huizhou merchants, there is no lack of elegance and stress in the folk houses of small families. Huizhou architecture, which combines the spirit of Huizhous mountains and rivers, integrates the essence of Chinas customs and culture, has unique style, rigorous structure and exquisite carving. It embodies the distinctive local characteristics both in the planning of villages and towns, in the comprehensive application of plane and space processing and architectural sculpture.
由古及今,大至宫廷建筑,小到地方民居,院子(也即庭院)都是一个构成建筑空间的主要元素,庭院,这个人为的自然空间,不但可以在某种程度上满足人们对自然的需求、感情的寄托,而且这种绵延千载的生活居住模式,业已成为人们割舍不了的习惯。
From ancient times to today, from palace buildings to local houses, courtyard (i.e. courtyard) is the main element of architectural space. Courtyard, an artificial natural space, can not only meet peoples needs for nature and emotional sustenance to some extent, but also this thousands of years of living mode has become a habit that people cant give up.
外国是把院子建在建筑之外,即院子包围房子。中国则相反,院在建筑之内而房子建在院子之外,即房屋包围院子。房屋、墙垣等围合成院落,以院为心;或是以主单元(即正殿、正厅)为心,次单元(即两厢)围绕主单元,一正两厢,并以抄手廊连接,组成一座建筑。其特点就在于把“院子”作为建筑平面的组成部分,室内外空间融为一体,以房廊作为过度空间,富有生活气息。院周围建筑互不独立,相互联系。但合院建筑不是群体,而只是“一座”建筑。
In foreign countries, the yard is built outside the building, that is, the yard surrounds the house. In China, on the contrary, the courtyard is built inside the building and the house is built outside the yard, that is, the house surrounds the yard. Houses, walls, etc. are enclosed into a courtyard, with the courtyard as the heart; Or take the main unit (i.e. the main hall and the main hall) as the center, and the secondary unit (i.e. the two compartments) surrounds the main unit, one front and two compartments, and is connected by the hand reading gallery to form a building. It is characterized by taking the "yard" as an integral part of the architectural plane, integrating the indoor and outdoor space, and taking the room corridor as the transition space, which is full of life flavor. The buildings around the courtyard are not independent and interrelated. However, the courtyard building is not a group, but just a "one" building.
中式庭院总体上采用的色彩较中和,多为灰白色,少有红蓝黄等炫目色彩。构图上以曲线为主,讲究曲径通幽。庭院构筑物以木质的亭台、台、廊、榭为主,月洞门、花格窗式的黛瓦粉墙,则起到阻隔引导分割视线和游径等作用。庭院植物有着明确的寓意和严格的位置,如屋后栽竹,厅前植桂,花坛种牡丹、芍药,阶前梧桐,转角芭蕉,坡地白皮松,水池栽荷花,点景用竹子、石笋,小品用石桌椅、孤赏石等。
On the whole, the color of Chinese courtyard is relatively neutral, mostly gray white, with few dazzling colors such as red, blue and yellow. The composition is mainly curve, paying attention to the winding path. The courtyard structures are mainly wooden pavilions, platforms, corridors and pavilions, while the moon cave door and lattice window style black tile powder wall play the role of blocking, guiding and dividing the line of sight and swimming path. Courtyard plants have a clear moral and strict position, such as planting bamboo behind the house, planting cinnamon in front of the hall, planting peony, peony, Wutong before the stage, turning banana planks, making white pine on slopes, planting lotus seeds in pools, using bamboo, stalagmites, stone tables and chairs, solitary stones, etc.
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